Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s (1749–1832) Maxims and Reflections is a terrific source of philosophical wisdom. The German writer, statesman, lawyer, playwright, and polymath was brilliant at distilling complex questions and concepts into simple, reflective statements. His wisdom was derived from a life spent learning, thinking, and transmitting knowledge across a wide variety of fields. He crafted volumes of poetry, dramas, and thought pieces on botany, human anatomy, and even the science of color. From his 590 aphorisms, here are our favorites which we hope you enjoy pondering:
#2. How can a man come to know himself? Never by thinking, but by doing. Try to do your duty and you will know at once what you are worth.
#7. Tell me with whom you associate, and I will tell you who you are. If I know what your business is, I know what can be made of you.
#19. It is only men of practical ability, knowing their powers and using them with moderation and prudence, who will be successful in worldly affairs.
#20. It is a great error to take oneself for more than one is, or for less than one is worth.
#33. Everything that frees our spirit without giving us control of ourselves is ruinous.
#34. A man is really alive only when he delights in the good-will of others.
#37. When a man is old he must do more than when he was young.
#60. Wisdom lies only in truth.
#65. Generosity wins favor for every one, especially when it is accompanied by modesty.
#91. Certain minds must be allowed their peculiarities.
#102. So obstinately contradictory is man that you cannot compel him to his advantage, yet he yields before everything that forces him to his hurt.
#124. One need only grow old to become gentler in one’s judgments. I see no fault committed which I could not have committed myself.
#130. Hatred is active displeasure, envy passive. We need not wonder that envy turns so soon to hatred.
#131. There is something magical in rhythm; it even makes us believe that we possess the sublime.
#134. The most foolish of all errors is for clever young men to believe that they forfeit their originality in recognizing a truth which has already been recognized by others.
#143. No one should desire to live in irregular circumstances; but if by chance a man falls into them, they test his character and show how much determination he is capable of.
#152. Ingratitude is always a kind of weakness. I have never known men of ability to be ungrateful.
#162. There are people who make no mistakes because they never wish to do anything worth doing.
#184. We may learn to know the world as we please: it will always retain a bright and a dark side.
#211. Enthusiasm is of the greatest value, so long as we are not carried away by it.
#223. We cannot escape a contradiction in ourselves; we must try and resolve it. If the contradiction comes from others, it does not affect us: it is their affair.
#231. Nothing is more terrible than ignorance in action.
#239. To live in a great idea means to treat the impossible as though it were possible. It is just the same with a strong character; and when an idea and a character meet, things arise which fill the world with wonder for thousands of years.
#264. A man’s manners are the mirror in which he shows his portrait.
#270. Against the great superiority of another there is no remedy but love.
#276. Fools and wise folk are alike harmless. It is the half-wise and the half-foolish, who are the most dangerous.
#278. Difficulties increase the nearer we come to our aim.
#320. A man is not deceived by others, he deceives himself.
#324. It is not enough to know, we must also apply; it is not enough to will, we must also do.
#332. Nothing is more highly to be prized than the value of each day.
#345. A man is well equipped for all the real necessities of life if he trusts his senses, and so cultivates them that they remain worthy of being trusted.
#346. The senses do not deceive; it is the judgment that deceives.
#383. Every man hears only what he understands.
#485. There is no surer way of evading the world than by Art; and no surer way of uniting with it than by Art.
#486. Even in the moments of highest happiness and deepest misery we need the Artist.
#488. The dignity of Art appears perhaps most conspicuously in music; for in music there is no material to be deducted. It is wholly form and intrinsic value, and it raises and ennobles all that it expresses.
#529. We more readily confess to errors, mistakes and shortcomings in our conduct than in our thought.
#554. A man must cling to the belief that the incomprehensible is comprehensible; otherwise he would not try to fathom it.
#579. There are two things of which a man cannot be careful enough: of obstinacy if he confines himself to his own line of thought; of incompetency, if he goes beyond it.
#584. Every one knows how to value what he has attained in life; most of all the man who thinks and reflects in his old age. He has a comfortable feeling that it is something of which no one can rob him.
If you enjoyed reading these you may also be interested in digesting similar lists of aphorisms we wrote about:
From Eastern Philosophy: Aphorisms for Thirsty Fish: The Lost Writings of Wu Hsin
From the mind of Nassim Taleb: The Bed of Procrustes — 20 Aphorisms from Nassim Taleb
And an interesting discussion criticizing aphorisms: Susan Sontag: Aphorisms and the Commodification of Wisdom